มาถึงเรื่องที่หลายคนคิดเอาเองว่ายาก คือเรื่อง Present Perfect มาทำความรู้จัก Tense นี้กัน

 

 เราจะใช้ Present Perfect เพื่อแสดงเหตุการณ์ ที่เกิดขึ้นในอดีต  ในเวลาที่ไม่ได้ระบุ   และ   มีผลถึงปัจจุบัน หรือยังเห็นผลของเหตุการณ์ ในปัจจุบันอยู่

ต่อไปนี้ผมจะขอย่อเรียกคำว่า Present Perfect ว่า น้องพีพี (PP) ละกันนะครับ

มาดูหน้าตาน้องพีพีกันก่อน ว่าจะสวยน่ารักขนาดไหน

Subjer  + have/has + Verb 3

 สิ่งที่เหล่าพี่น้อง Perfect ของเรามีกันทุกคน ก็คือ

Have หรือ Has แล้วตามด้วย Verb ช่อง 3 

เหตุผลที่เด็กไทยคิดว่าเรื่องนี้ยากก็เพราะจำ Verb ช่อง 3 ไม่ค่อยได้ แต่อย่าห่วงเลยครับ ขอแค่อดทนใช้เวลาศึกษามัน เดี๋ยวมันก็จำเข้าหัวได้เอง เสมือนเราสามารถร้องเพลงที่เราได้ยินทางวิทยุประจำได้

 

เราจะใช้บริการน้องพีพี ก็ต่อเมื่อ มีเงื่อนไขดังต่อไปนี้

  1. ใช้กับเหตุการณ์ในอดีตที่จบไปแล้ว แต่ผลของการกระทำยังอยู่
  2. แสดงเหตุการณ์ที่เพิ่งจบลงไป
    มักมีคำว่า just , yet , already , recently , lately , finally , eventually
  3. ใช้กับเหตุการณ์ในอดีตที่ดำเนินต่อเนื่องมาถึงปัจจุบัน
    มักมีคำว่า since , for , so far
  4. ใช้กับเหตุการณ์ที่ เคย/ไม่เคยทำ บอกจำนวนครั้งในอดีต
    มักมีคำว่า ever , never , once , twice ,again and again ...


เดี๋ยวจะให้ดูตัวอย่าง ในแต่ละเงื่อนไขนะครับ

 

 

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คำบอกเวลา ที่ใช้ กับน้องพีพี

ผมขออธิบายสองตัวให้รู้จักก่อนคือ Since กับ For

 เราใช้ For แสดงช่วงระยะเวลา ว่านานแค่ไหน  เช่น

 

 


[ Marcus: I have been struck by a bolt of lightning! ]

 

 

 

 


 

 

 


Use
  1. Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now
  2. Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment
  3. Actions which began in the past and continue in the present

I've eaten 10 apples today!

 

 



Click to read about "for" and "since".
Time expressions used with the Present Perfect

Since and for

"Since" and "for" are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect. We use for with a period of time, for example:

  • I have lived here for 20 years.

When talking about a starting point, we use "since" with a point in time.

  • I have lived here since 1960.

More about time expressions

 



Oil prices have gone up recently.

 

 

Present Perfect vs. Present Perfect Continuous

In most cases, both tenses are acceptable.

  • I have lived in Los Angeles since 1985.
  • I have been living in Los Angeles since 1985.

There are some situations in which one of the tenses sounds better.

To emphasize duration of an action, use the continuous form

  • I've been trading cars for 10 years.

To emphasize result of an action, use the simple form

  • He has just come back from work.
  • I have finished my workout.
  • I've bought a new car.

 

Form

 

The structure of PP is not very easy because it requires some pratice to get used to it. To correctly form Present Perfect sentences, you should know these:

  • the proper conjugation of the verb "have" (=auxiliary verb) [1]
  • Past Participle [2]

 

[1]

We conjugate the auxialiary verb "to have" the same as we would conjugate the verb "to have".

 Singular formPlural form
First person I have We have
Second person You have You have
Third person He/she/it has They have

 

As you can see, the third person singular (he/she/it has) is irregular. Examples:

  • She has never seen my brother
  • Neither of my brothers has ever driven a truck

[2]

To correctly form a sentence in the PP, we also need the past participle. You can read a nice article about the past participle here. In short it is the verb from that is used with the perfect tenses.

Same as the past form, the past participle can be either regular or irregular.

The regular verbs are typically formed by adding -ed. Read an article about regular verbs.

VerbPast Participle
talk talked
explain explained
use used
deliver delivered
include included
achieve achieved
The formation of the irregular verbs does not follow one rule. Therefore, they should be memorized. Read an article about the irregular verbs.

 

VerbPast ParticipleMore conjugation
be been be
become become become
see seen see
go gone go
eat eaten eat
grow grown grow
Declarative sentences:
Subject + Auxiliary verb + Past participle
I/a dog etc. has/have slept/gone etc.

 

 


    Examples Use
    We have already had breakfast (Use 1)
    I have bought new shades (Use 2)
    I have already been to Paris (Use 1)
    John has been a plumber for 2 years (Use 3)
    Someone has just taken my bag! (Use 1,2)
    Jane has never been so angry (Use 3)
    He has been our most serious partner for so long that I can assure you he's a very decent man (Use 3)
Questions:
What is inversion?

Inversion involves swapping (inverting) the position of an auxiliary verb and subject in a sentence. The most common use of inversion is forming interrogative sentences (questions).


 

 

SentenceQuestion
Earth is small compared to ther planets Is Earth small compared to other planets?
I am thirsty Am I thirsty?
My name is Is my name Mark?

If there is no auxiliary verb in the sentence, one needs to be added when you invert the word order.

SentenceQuestion
Earth is small compared to ther planets Is Earth small compared to other planets?
I am thirsty Am I thirsty?
My name is Is my name Mark?
Andrew had problems with health Did Andrew have problems with health?
It belongs to Emma Does it belong to Emma?
She looked tired Did she look tired?

Inversion is also used in emphasizing and in conditional sentences.

 

 

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Past participle
has/have I/a dog etc. slept/gone etc.

 

    Examples Use
    Have you ever seen this program? (Use 1)
    Where has she lived for the past 21 years? (Use 3)
    Have you found the telephone number? (Use 1,2)
    Have you ever been to France?
    (Use 1)
    Has anyone taken my bag? (Use 1,2)

 

In sentences with adverbials such as ever, already and yet, Americans may use the Past Simple rather than the Present Perfect. So an American would say:

  • Did you go to the post office yet?

And a British man:

  • Have you gone to the post office yet?

 

Negative sentences:
Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Past participle
I/a dog etc. hasn't/haven't slept/gone etc.

 

    Examples Use
    He hasn't taken any drug for two years (Use 3)
    I haven't met my perfect partner yet (Use 3)
    They haven't contacted you, have they? (Use 1)

 

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